To deliberately refrain or hold back from an action or practice, especially in terms of voting on an issue. To abstain from a vote means to formally remain uncommitted, saying neither ‘yes’ nor ‘no’.
The same thing as responsibility, that is, being responsible (legally, ethically, financially or culturally) and answerable for your actions and decisions to a person or group. To be able to explain and justify what happened. For example, the ability of a community leader or governing body to account for their own actions, or the actions of their organisation, to their members (internal accountability) and their wider constituents and stakeholders (external accountability).
Accountability requires rules, procedures, practical capacity, freedom of information, transparency, and building trust and credibility.
There are different types of accountability, including political and managerial, program or administrative, financial and resource, individual member and stakeholder, cultural and ethical.
The actions and tasks a group or organisation undertakes to fulfil its goals, implement a project or plan, and achieve desired outcomes—in other words, ‘doing something’. Activities may also be called ‘strategies’, ‘actions’, ‘processes’ and ‘methods’. They may be carried out by individuals or collective groups. Specific details about your activities can be presented in an activity schedule or report.
A written report that is prepared by the management of an organisation or business on behalf of and for the governing body, members and public about the activities, operations and finances for each (previous) financial year. It may also outline plans for the future.
In a community development approach, assets are the strengths, talents, capacities, skills and effectiveness of:
- people—such as artists, elders, leaders, managers, mechanics, senior citizens and young people
- organisations and businesses—such as clubs, community organisations, government agencies, hospitals, schools and sporting teams
- institutions—such as constitutions, laws, policies, procedures and rules
- cultural, natural or physical resources in a community and region—including knowledge, local facilities, products, rivers, sporting fields and traditions.
Making an inventory or list of the strengths, resources and gifts of a group of people. It reveals the assets of the entire group and highlights the interconnections among them. This assists people to better manage and access those assets. You can create an asset map of your governance, culture, community, nation or organisation. These maps are often drawn up as visual representations.
Having the power or right to undertake a particular job, role or activity in a given context, and to make, facilitate and enforce decisions about those matters. The right or power to act, and command others.
Benchmark (as in performance benchmark):
A reference point, agreed standard (best practice, for example) or objective baseline that reflects the aspirations (community, organisational or societal) that have been met, or are desired to be met, and against which progress and achievements can be compared. Benchmarks can be based on what has been achieved in the past; what other comparable organisations or development partners are achieving; what was targeted or budgeted for; and/or what could reasonably have been achieved under the circumstances.
A governing body consisting of two linked chambers or branches.
A type of governing body of a voluntary, informal or incorporated organisation or other representative structure, such as a committee. Members may be selected through informal nomination processes or elected by a voting system.
A written document that summarises the operational and financial goals of a business or organisation and sets out the detailed plans (for example, marketing, management or operating plans) and budgets to achieve them. It is usually prepared by management, and reviewed and approved by the governing body. It’s often compulsory if you want to borrow money from a bank.
The rules (also known as regulations) governing the internal affairs of a nation, community or organisation as adopted by the members, shareholders or board of directors. By-laws generally include procedures for holding meetings, electing the governing body and officers, and also set out the duties and powers of the office bearers. They usually have a formal basis—for example, they may be written within a constitution or piece of legislation.
The combination of people’s skills, institutions, resources, organisational abilities, powers and practices that enables them to reach their own goals over time. Capacity may be individual and collective.
The development of an individual, group or organisation’s core skills and capabilities in order to build their overall effectiveness and achieve their goals. These include administrative, cultural, creative, evaluation, finance and fundraising, leadership, literacy, management, personal, planning, professional development and organizing skills and capabilities.
Also includes the process of assisting an individual or group to identify and address issues that may be holding back their ability to achieve desired outcomes, and gain the insights, knowledge and experience needed to solve problems and implement change.
The United Nations Development Program defines this as “The process by which individuals groups, organisations, institutions and societies increase their abilities; to perform functions solve problems and achieve objectives; to understand and deal with their development need in a broader context and in a sustainable manner” (UNDP, 1997).
The person who presides over (runs), and so has the most control and authority at the meetings of an organisation, committee, governing body or event.
Code of conduct:
A written document that sets out the guidelines for standards of behaviour expected from a governing body, leaders, managers and employees. It includes procedures for identifying and resolving potential conflicts of interest and misbehaviour. A code of conduct is also reviewed and approved by the governing body from time to time. There may be several separate codes within a single organisation. Some codes are informal and enforced by mutual consent and shared values.
A governance code of conduct usually encourages a commitment to:
- collective decision making
- agreed high standards of behaviour
- competence and quality of service
- maintaining confidentiality when appropriate
- working in an objective, fair and lawful way
- a shared future vision and objectives
- respect for leaders’ or governing body’s decisions.
The long-term, facilitated process or effort of working with people and communities at the local level to support them in working together to identify the needs of all the members of the community; to create change; and to empower themselves to have more influence and control over decisions affecting their lives. It emphasises developing local capacity to improve the quality of people’s lives in the communities in which they live.
Conflict of interest:
Occur when someone’s duty, roles and responsibilities as a member of a governing body conflict with their own personal interests (for example those of their business, family or property interests). It means not making decisions about matters where you, or those close to you, have a special interest and may benefit.
The process whereby all the members of a group come to agree to a given course of action, or at least, agree to disagree and are prepared to support a consensus decision.
Consensus is created through slow agreement and may change over time. It is a matter of moulding opinion (often done by influential people) and when achieved can create chains of cooperation within and across networks.
A formal set of rules and principles for governance (often set out in a written document), which establishes a nation, group or organisation’s rules of operation, powers, structures, procedures, duties, principles, values, purpose and goals. A constitution may consist of the legal instruction book for how things must be done according to a specific piece of legislation—for example, under laws of incorporation for organisations, or local government legislation.
A type of business that is owned and controlled by the people who use the services it provides. In Australia, a cooperative is a corporation registered under specific state or territory legislation.
A legal entity that exists separately from the people who are its members, or who manage or govern it. It has its own legal powers (such as to hold property, enter into contracts, sue and be sued in its corporate name), and legal responsibilities and accountabilities that are regulated and can be reviewed by external mechanisms. Corporations include companies, cooperatives and incorporated associations, and are also known as incorporated organisations.
The misuse or abuse of a public office or position (that is, entrusted power and authority) for personal gain or other illegal or immoral benefit.
The distinctive ideas, customs, social behaviour, meanings, laws and values that are shared by a particular group of people, and which together form the foundation for the way they live. A shared culture enables people to communicate with each other, behave in an accepted way and do things together towards common ends.
A particular culture is acquired and transmitted by people over generations, through written means, oral traditions, participating in group activities and the socialisation of young children.
Is an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander principle of land ownership and social organisation. It is about the way peoples’ collective identities are based on their deep ties and attachments to particular areas of land (country), and their rights and responsibilities for looking after that country.
There are ‘cultural boundaries’ associated with these geographies—such as environmental, ceremonial and gender networks, leadership hierarchies and extended family networks—which are often considered to be the rightful basis for governance arrangements.
One aspect of a group or organisation’s overall legitimacy, whereby their governance arrangements embody and reinforce their preferred contemporary values and ideas about how authority should be organised and leadership exercised. Cultural legitimacy in a governance arrangements means having rules, structures and processes that:
- are informed by an understanding of your own cultural traditions
- embody the values and norms that are important to you
- reflect your contemporary ideas about how power and authority should be shared and put into practice
- are generated through your people’s own efforts, and therefore have the support of the people being governed.
The things that a group, community or organisation lacks, is not doing or falls short of—its shortcomings or deficiencies. A non-deficit approach focuses instead on the positive characteristics, such as assets, strengths and motivations.
A person or thing designated to act for or represent others. A governing body may be a delegate and may, in turn, delegate its powers to others. When a function or power is delegated, the governing body still holds final responsibility for it, and remains accountable for what occurs.
Change or transformation that makes life better in ways that people want. It can take a variety of forms, including growth in traditional subsistence activities to increased participation in market economies; from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander entrepreneurship to joint ventures with non-Indigenous corporations; from collective nation, community and clan enterprises to small individual and family cottage industries.
Development is sustainable when it ‘meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’. As such, it involves value judgements about the preferred direction and speed of change.
Diligence (as in due diligence):
The constant and earnest effort of an individual, group, committee, governing body or organisation to accomplish what is undertaken and expected of it. This means being cautious and careful when making decisions, and ensuring they are lawful.
It does not mean that you have to be an expert on everything. It means if you are unclear or confused about an issue, you have a responsibility to get all the information you need (maybe from an outside expert) in order to make an ‘informed’ decision.
A bounded or separate geographic location (either physical or legal boundaries in the case of a settlement, remote outstation or Indigenous community) that is inhabited mostly by Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander peoples (more than 50 per cent of residents), with housing or infrastructure that is managed on a community basis.
To argue against or call into question the truth, validity or appropriateness of an action or decision. A dispute can be between two people or a number of people. Dispute resolution is the procedure by which a group of people (or individuals) consider, assess and resolve, where possible, disputes or complaints.
Effective (of governance):
Capable, competent and efficient. Performing and functioning well and in doing so producing the desired outcomes of the group or organisation, leading to the achievement of their mission and goals.
The act of selecting a person or persons for office, on a governing body or committee by means of formal vote, or by agreed nomination or consensus procedures.
The systematic collection and analysis of different kinds of information about a process, organisation, project or event, over a particular timeframe, which enables people to better understand and objectively assess its worth, performance, relevance, sustainability and success. Evaluation enables people to then decide what may need to be changed and to make decisions about its future.
When you evaluate something, you can assess its accountability, cultural legitimacy, effectiveness, efficiency, impact, outcomes and sustainability. (See also participatory evaluation, self-evaluation.)
The action or process of making something easier or simpler, helping to move it forward and getting a result. This is the role of a facilitator: a person who helps to foster communication or understanding within a group of people, or negotiations between various parties.
A ‘facilitated approach’ is one that uses a facilitator (or of a particular technology such as the internet) to achieve aims more easily.
Describes a union of states under a central government, distinct from the individual governments of the separate states.
To organise on a federal basis, or to band together for a common objective or goal.
A person to whom property or power is entrusted for the benefit of another.
Means having a responsibility to make the right decisions on behalf of all members, and to act honestly and in the best interests of your members when you exercise your powers and do your job of governing an organisation. This legal duty requires you to always put your members’ interests ahead of your own.
The different roles and responsibilities attributed to men and women in a society. It does not simply mean the biological definition of sex as male and female, but also how these biological definitions are constructed in a particular social, cultural or historical context, and so is subject to change.
Equality between men and women. This implies a society or organisation in which women and men enjoy the same opportunities (for financial independence, access to work and education), outcomes, rights and obligations in all spheres of life, and where they share equally in the distribution of power and influence.
A broad statement of long-term (usually over three to five years) or short-term (over one to three years) purpose for your organisation, project or evaluation, which can be reasonably achieved within the expected timeframe and with the available resources. Setting your goals tells you where you or your project are going in the longer term—what long-term impact will it contribute towards? (See also, objective.)
The complex mechanisms, processes, relationships, structures and institutions through which power and authority are assigned and exercised in a group, so that decisions can be made, activities carried out, and the group’s collective goals achieved in the ‘right way’.
The internal system of formal and informal traditions, relationships, and culturally-shared value and processes that create collective behavioural accountability, and that influence staff, management and leaders to conform to an organisation’s rules, vision and goals.
The broader external political, legal, policy, institutional and economic context within which a nation, community or organisation carries out its own governance functions.
This environment operates at several levels, including local, community, state, national and international levels. Each different part of the wider environment has is own sets of governance rules, values and ways of getting things done, which can influence how a group or organisation operates.
A ‘structure’ is something made up of a number of parts that are held or put together in a particular way. So a governing structure is the particular way that interrelated powers, decision-making roles, responsibilities and rules are arranged and put in place to support the running and accountability of a community, group or governing body or organisation.
A statement or ‘word picture’ of what you want to achieve for your current members and future generations, and what kind of governance you want to have (including leadership, decision-making processes, accountabilities, core values, mutual responsibilities, shared rules and behaviours) in order to achieve your goals.
The group of people given the power and authority to represent others by leading, organising, exercising power, making decisions, forming policy and steering the overall direction of an organisation or group. They can be elected to that position of power by voting, or selected through nomination by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander decision-making processes.
Once this process happens, the individuals on a governing body are said to act as the ‘representatives’ or ‘delegates’ of the people who selected or elected them.
The jurisdictional authority that rules a country, nation, community or state, through delegated powers, policy and regulations or laws. In Australia, government draws its authority from the Australian Constitution and a mandate from the nation’s citizens as a parliamentary democracy. Australia’s mainstream system of government has three levels: federal (or Commonwealth), state or territory, and local government.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have ancient jurisdictions of traditions and laws that operated effectively as governments, but which currently have no legal or treaty recognition, or devolved status under Australian common law or constitution. ‘Nation rebuilding’ encourages Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander nations to act in self-determining ways, like governments.
A wrong considered as grounds for complaint, or something believed to cause distress or resentment—such as an unjust or unfair act—by an individual, group or by an organisation as a whole.
An area of traditional land to which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have ancestral and/or cultural links. This area may or may not be permanently occupied. (Also referred to as an outstation.)
The effect, influence or impression (both positive and negative) of one thing or person upon another.
Not favouring one person or group over any other; being fair, just and unbiased.
The laws pertaining to the act of being incorporated and forming a legal corporation or organisation.
The information that measures and reveals progress (or lack of) towards meeting the stated objectives of the project or organisation. Where possible, indicators should be clearly defined and measurable, and include a target detailing the quantity, quality and timing of the expected results. For evaluation purposes it is often said that indicators should be ‘SMART’— that is, specific, measurable, achievable, relevant and timed.
The ‘rules of the game’—the way things are, and are to be done. They may be formal and informal. Examples include legal, judicial, and political systems, kinship systems, behavioural norms, values and ethics, religious beliefs and ceremonial cycles.
Relating to two or more different cultures that are closely intertwined and interact. This is a space of close contact and emerging relationships between cultures. It may include interaction between the cultural rules, standards, laws and systems they have in place. Intercultural contact may be positive and constructive, or mutually confusing and antagonistic.
The authority of a sovereign power to govern or legislate. The extent or range of legal or administrative power, and/or the territory or area over which such power extends.
A person who leads or guides others in action or opinion. A steward, or someone who takes the lead in any business, enterprise, process or movement.
The social and political process in which one person can enlist the support and influence others to accomplish a common goal or objective, thereby encouraging consensus, cohesive and collective action.
The extent to which the ways you govern (such as how your governance arrangements are created, decisions are made, leaders are chosen and held accountable) are seen as credible by, and acceptable to, the people who are your members, constituents and stakeholders. (See also, cultural legitimacy.)
A rule that selects one of two alternatives decisions about an issue, based on which has more than half the votes.
Obtaining, coordinating, managing and using resources (human, financial, natural, technical and cultural) for the purpose of accomplishing a goal that is beyond the scope of individual effort.
Management should be carried out in accordance with set policies, rules and plans. It can also refer to the people who manage or ‘handle’ this task.
A person who is part of a nation, community, group, governing body, committee or board.
An individual—usually older and always more experienced—who helps and guides another individual’s personal or professional development. This guidance is not done for personal gain. A good mentor is like a coach: always challenging, inspiring and demanding the best.
A business management style or approach where a higher authority (governing body or manager) keeps an overly tight rein on everything and everyone (closely observing, controlling and monitoring every step) and doesn’t let the people whose actual responsibility it is get on with making their own decisions.
This style can cause resentment, shows a lack of faith and trust, discourages teamwork, and stops people from developing their skills and new ideas.
A significant scheduled event or outcome that acts as an indicator of progress in the life of a project.
The written record of a meeting that provide an accurate, objective and full account of the meeting’s discussions, decisions, recommendations and proposed actions. Usually verified and signed off by a governing body at subsequent meetings.
A broad statement that describes the overall purpose and direction of a group or organisation. It clearly identifies what the organisation or group does, why it does it, and for whom it does it. A mission should be an enduring statement that helps members, stakeholders and the public understand why your organisation or unit exists and continues to operate. (See also, purpose.)
An ongoing process of reviewing the activities of a program, person, governing body or organisation to determine whether the set standards and requirements are being met or progress is being made towards achieving the objectives and goals.
A group or community of people who share a common language, culture, ethnicity, descent or history. A nation may share a single common territory with physical boundaries and government, or it may be located as a nation within another lager nation.
A nation does not rely on legislated or treaty recognition, although that greatly enhances its jurisdictional and decision-making power.
The processes by which an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander nation enhances its own foundational capacity for effective self-governance and for self-determined community and economic development. Nation rebuilding is about how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people can pull together the tools (such as the processes, checks, balances and structures) they need to build the futures that they want, and can put them into place.
An interconnected system of things or people who share information and resources. Networks are made up of intersection points or nodes (such as leaders, elders, sacred sites, powerful families or relationships) and flow routes (links). Networks enable people and organisations to share knowledge and resources, and to cooperate together to for agreed purposes.
Another word for goal, which identifies a short- or long-term measurable step within a designated period of time that is moving toward achieving an overall goal. In other words, it’s your aim ‘to do something’. Objectives are the most basic planning tools underlying all planning and strategic activities. They serve as the basis for policy and performance appraisals, and act as glue that binds a group or entire organisation together.
A social, legal, or moral requirement such as a duty, contract or promise that makes a person, group or organisation follow or avoid a particular course of action.
A group of people who work together over time to pursue shared goals and objectives, which they could not achieve easily as individuals. Organisations may be formal or informal.
Is the internal culture of shared values, shared behaviours and standards of an organisation. An organisationaI structure is built up over time, may be negative or positive, and can change. Organisational culture has been shown to significantly enhance individual and collective performance, and create a greater shared commitment to an organisation’s strategic vision and goals.
The arrangements by which an organisation is governed, directed and controlled, including its financial and information management, program administration, legal responsibilities, rules, policies, and principles and procedures. The governance structure specifies the way that powers, responsibilities and accountability of different participants in the organisation are arranged (including the governing body, managers and staff).
The results that your group, organisation, program or plan aims to achieve; the changes (intended or not) that occur as a result; and the difference that is made. When defining outcomes, consider how an outcome touches the lives of individuals, groups, families, households, organisations or communities.
Something that is produced at the end of a particular endeavour. The tangible product of a project or program activities, including goods, services, business plans, steering committees, policy guidelines or infrastructure.
Participation (as in community participation):
A spectrum of activities that involves people running their communities, nations and organisations. In particular, it refers to the process of involving a community’s members in decision making about the planning, development, priorities and quality issues in building governance arrangements, and delivering particular services and programs of importance to them. Real participation means joint problem solving, joint decision making and joint responsibility.
Evaluation where the people most closely involved in carrying out a project or process that is being evaluated become directly involved in undertaking some aspects of the evaluation together. For example, they may help identify the problems and their possible causes; define the appropriate standards for making assessments; gather and analyse relevant information; provide feedback; identify solutions; communicate the results; and make the recommended changes.
Participatory approaches attempt to be practical, useful and empowering to multiple stakeholders. They actively engage all stakeholders in all stages of the evaluation process.
The state of being a partner or having a collaborative association with another community, organisation, company, institution or agency, which usually shares a common interest. A partnership may be legally binding or informally endorsed.
The results of activities of a person, group or organisation over a given period of time. Perform means the act of doing something successfully or getting something done well.
A formal, face-to-face process in which an individual’s work performance is systematically assessed using agreed criteria, with the aim of identifying problems or making corrections.
A kind of rule or guideline for action developed by a nation, government, organisation or group to guide its decisions, behaviour and collective action to achieve desired outcomes and goals. Policies may determine may be determine governance, political, management, financial, economic, cultural and administrative actions.
A plan and structure for how all the policies for a nation, agency or organisation are developed and implemented; how they fit together; their intended impact; and for whom they are implemented.
The extent of acknowledged legal, jurisdictional and cultural authority and capacity to make decisions, exercise laws, resolve disputes and carry out administration.
A rule that guides how an activity (such as a meeting or event) should be performed. These are usually based on the particular cultural and social norms of a community or group and are often unwritten (for example, the protocol that requires people to show respect for elders and leaders).
A broad statement setting out the specific reason for which your group or organisation exists. Your project purpose is what the project is expected to achieve in terms of sustainable governance and development outcomes at the end, or soon after, the life of the project. This may include improved services, increased agricultural production, higher immunisation coverage, higher employment or cleaner water. (See also, mission statement.)
The number of members of a group, committee or organisation required to be present to make decisions and transact business legally. It is usually a majority and may be specified in a constitution.
legal restrictions imposed by a governing authority, perhaps through legislative acts or the rules of administrative agencies (usually supported by the threat of a sanction or fine). (See also, by-laws).
A person who represents a nation, community on the governing body of an organisation, committee or other body. To represent means to act as a recognised delegate or spokesperson for somebody else’s interests, wishes, rights or welfare.
The economic, human, cultural, natural, social, information and technological resources (including equipment, fuel, knowledge, money, people and skills) to establish and carry out your governance and development.
A state of being responsible for someone or something; having an obligation to fulfil. Being the primary cause of something and so being able to be blamed or credited for it.
The standards, authoritative statements and requirements to which members of a group or organisation should subscribe and conform to. They may be underwritten by peoples’ informal collective cultural values and beliefs. They may be the formal legal rules of operation adopted and set out in a constitution, policy, procedures or guidelines. They tell us how people should behave towards each other, work together, communicate and make decisions, and what to do when things go wrong.
Governance rules set out the framework and ‘ground rules’ for:
- who has the authority to make decisions, and about what
- how decisions should be made
- who can talk on behalf of others
- what obligations there are between leaders and their members.
In 1998, an international conference of experts convened by UNESCO defined self-determination as an ongoing process of choice for the achievement of human security and fulfilment of human needs, with a broad scope of possible outcomes and expressions suited to different specific situations. These can include (but are not limited to):
- guarantees of cultural security
- legitimate forms of self-government and autonomy prescribed by international instruments
- economic self-reliance
- effective participation at the international level
- land and sea rights and the ability to care for the natural environment
- spiritual freedom
- the various forms that ensure the free expression and protection of collective identity in dignity.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander self-determination refers to genuine decision-making power and responsibility about what happens on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples’ lands, in their affairs, in their governing systems and in their development strategies. It means having meaningful control over their own life and cultural wellbeing.
Is where people (such as leaders or members of a governing body) give their own views and judgements about their processes and performance, and the results they have achieved. It helps identify their most important strengths and areas for improvement, and facilitates the identification of procedures that improve their ability to achieve goals and carry out roles.
Separation of powers:
The principle or system where the different executive branches of an organisation or community have separate and unique powers and responsibilities. For example, each branch should not interfere with the powers, roles and responsibilities of the governing body and the top management of an organisation.
The phrase ‘separation of powers’ is a misleading one, because while the powers of a governing body and top manager may be different, they have to be carried out in close collaboration and with trust, and so should more accurately be called a partnership of separate powers.
Shareholder (or stockholder):
A person (or other entity or organisation) that owns shares in a company or business. Shareholders receive a portion of the profits (called dividends) and have mutual obligations and rights (such as voting) in regard to the running of the company.
Transferable abilities that are developed through experience, learning and/or training—in other words, the know-how needed to complete tasks, solve problems and perform a job.
Any individual, group or organisation that has a valid, direct interest in the actions or decisions of a community, organisation, group or project. Their interest may be because they will have a role in implementing the decisions, or because they will be affected by the decision.
An advisory committee usually made up of high-level stakeholders or experts, who provide guidance on direction that should be taken in respect to key issues, including the organisation’s policy, objectives, plans, strategies and resource allocation.
Being able to manage the affairs of a group or organisation on behalf of all its members, in a way that safeguards and facilitates people’s effective self-determination and ability to get things done.
A broad statement of your intended strategic actions during a period of planning, creating a broad, shared understanding. This should provide a theme that knits together otherwise independent activities and focuses the energies of functional groups on things that matter.
A written document that sets out your intended strategic goals and actions during a specified period to achieve those intended goals; where you want to go and how you’re going to get there. It sets out the vision and mission; explains the priorities, goals and strategies; and what actions, resources, people, and amount of time are needed. Put simply, a strategic plan is a leadership tool, whereas a business plan is a management tool.
A set of practices, customs, beliefs and/or stories belonging to a particular group of people, handed down from generation to generation.
A person, usually one of a body of persons, appointed to have decision-making authority over the affairs of an organisation, company or institution on someone else’s behalf.
The governing body of an organisation is responsible for efficiently managing the funds, resources and assets on behalf of its wider members. It acts as a trustee for its members.
A set of principles, standards or qualities that are considered worthwhile, desirable, useful, good or important. There are many different types of values— ethical, financial, moral, natural, social or spiritual—and they may vary greatly between cultures.
Groups that seek to maintain or control an existing system or activity, from which they derive private benefit (that is, they have a special interest in maintaining it).
The guiding image of success for a group or organisation, drawn up in terms of a major contribution to society or where it wants to be in the future. It is a ‘language picture’ description in words that evokes a similar understanding of the future for each member of a group.
Participation, having a say in decisions (and how they are made) about what is in the best interests of the community or group. A voice may be individual and collective.